F2-onset frequency and place of articulation Part 2

As seen in Demo K300, trajectories of the first and the second formant frequencies (F1 and F2) are responsible for the place of articulation of a consonant in a CV (consonant-vowel) syllable.
In this page, we change additional parameters trying to make synthetic CV syllables more natural.

Figure: F1 and F2 trajectories

Stimuli in this demonstration are created using a formant synthesizer. Formant trajectories (figure above) and additional parameters (indicated as [new]) are modified as follows.  Synthesized stimuli do not have bursts. See [8] Tomaru and Arai (2016) for more details.

[new] ・F1〜F3 of the following vowel, /a/:F1=790 Hz、F2=1190 Hz、F3=2640 Hz
        ・Only F1 and F2 transitions are modified.
[new] ・F1 and F2 transition time: lengthened by 2 ms from 22 ms to 38ms (total = 9 steps)
[new] ・F1 starting frequency:stable at 385 Hz
[new] ・F2 starting frequency: rased by 100 Hz from 885 Hz to 1690 Hz
[new] ・F0 varied as follows
            0 ms 〜 100 ms = 125 Hz
            150 ms =  130 Hz
            200 ms =  135 Hz
            300 ms = 130 Hz
            330 ms = 125 Hz
[new] ・Bandwidths
            F1 = 60 Hz
            F2 = 105 Hz
            F3 = 150 Hz
            F4 = 200 Hz
            F5 = 1000 Hz
[new] ・OQ (Open Quotioent: voicing open-time/period) = 80%
[new] ・TL(Extra tilt of voicing spectrum) = 8 dB down @ 3 kHz

Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 Step 8
Step 9
F1 & F2
transition time (ms)









F2 starting
885 985 1085 1190 1290 1390 1490 1590 1690

[1]Kewley-Port, D., "Measurement of formant transitions in naturally produced stop consonant-vowel syllables," J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 72(2), 379-389, 1982.
[2]Kent, R. D. and Read, C., Acoustic Analysis of Speech, Singular Publishing, San Diego, CA, 2001. (荒井隆行, 菅原勉 監訳, 音声の音響分析, 海文堂, 1996.)
[3]Klatt, D. H. and L. C. Klatt, "Analysis, synthesis, and perception of voice quality variations among female and male talkers," J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 87, 820–857 (1990).
[4]Klatt,D. H. "The new MIT speech VAX computer facility,"  in Speech Communication Group Working Papers IV, Research Laboratory of Electronics (MIT, Cambridge, MA, 1984), pp. 73–82.
[5]Liberman, A. M., P. C. Delattre, F. S. Cooper and L. J. Gerstman, "The role of consonant-vowel transitions in the perception of the stop and nasal consonants," Psychol. Monogr.: Gen. Appl., 68(8), 1–13 (1954).
[6]Liberman, A. M., K. S. Harris, H. S. Hoffman and B. C. Griffith, "The discrimination of speech sounds within and across phoneme boundaries," J. Exp. Psychol., 54, 358–368 (1957).
[7]Liberman, A. M., K. S. Harris, J. A. Kinney and H. Lane, "The discrimination of relative onset-time of the components of certain speech and nonspeech patterns," J. Exp. Psychol., 61, 379–388 (1961).
[8]Tomaru, L. and T. Arai, "Role of labeling mediation in speech perception: Evidence from a voiced stop continuum perceived in different surrounding sound contexts," Acoust. Sci. & Tech., 37(6), 303-314 (2016).