VOT continuum

・VOT: duration between the release of the closure of a stop and the beginning of vocal folds vibration
    -VOT determines voicing of stop consonants
        ・Voiced:-20ms 〜 +20ms
        ・Voiceless:25ms 〜 100ms (“The Acoustic Analysis of Speech”)
    -Example:/da/-/ta/ continuum
        ・VOT from –10ms to +40ms in 10ms steps

・Example of synthesis:/da/-/ta/
    -F1 frequency
        ・Onset of formant transition:    395Hz
        ・Steady state of vowel:    700Hz
    -F2 frequency
        ・Onset of formant transition:    1600Hz
        ・Steady state of vowel:    1200Hz
    -F1 and F2 transition duration
        ・F1:    25ms
        ・F2:    55ms
    -Beginning of vocal folds vibration (AV)
        ・from -10ms to +80ms in 10ms steps

[Other parameters]
・F0 contour : manually manipulated (mininum F0 125Hz, maximum F0 135 Hz)
・Burst (at 25 ms) : AI=50dB
・Frication (the range: from 25ms to 35ms) : A3F=47dB, A4F=60dB, A5F=50dB

・Example of synthesis:/da/-/ta/

VOT -10 ms
0 ms
+10 ms
+20 ms
+30 ms
+40 ms
+50 ms +60 ms
+70 ms
+80 ms

Lisker, L. and Abramson, A., "Some effects of context on voice onset time in English stops," Language and Speech, 10, 1-28, 1967.

Kent, R. D. and Read, C., Acoustic Analysis of Speech, Singular Publishing, San Diego, CA, 2001.

Ryalls, J., A Basic Introduction to Speech Perception, Singular Publishing, San Diego, CA, 1996.