Fricative-affricate continuum

Several studies have found that the duration of frication is the primary cue for fricative and affricate identification (Howell et al.,1983; Kluender and Walsh 1992; Mitani et al., 2006; Amano et al., 2011, Yasu et al. 2013). When the duration of frication (C) is longer, identification shifts to fricatives from affricates.

When preceded by a vowel V1, the interval of silence (SI) between V1 and a fricative become a cue for identification (Yasu et al., 2013; Repp, 1978; Dorman et al., 1980; Goldon-Salant et al.,2006).
Longer SI tends toward the perception of an affricate.



In this demonstration, SI between V1 and C was set to the range of 0-100 ms in 10 ms steps (11 steps). The length of C is fixed to 180 ms

SI (ms) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

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SI (ms) V1 only CV2 only

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References

P. Howell and S. Rosen, ``Production and perception of rise time in the voiceless affricate/fricative distinction,'' J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 73(3):976--984, 1983.

Kluender, K. R. and Walsh, M. A. ``Amplitude rise time and the perception of the voiceless affricate/fricative distinction,'' Percept. Psychophys., 51(4):328--333, 1992.

Mitani, S., Kitama, T. and Sato, Y., ``Voiceless affricate/fricative distinction by frication duration and amplitude rise slope,'' J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 120(3):1600--1607, 2006.

Amano S. and Yamakawa, K., ``Perception and production boundaries between fricative [s] and affricate [ts] in Japanese,'' Proc. of ICPhS XVII, Hong Kong, 228--231, 2011.

Yasu, K., Arai, T., Kobayashi, K., Shindo, M., ``Weighting of acoustic cues shifts to frication duration in identification of fricatives/affricates when auditory properties are degraded due to aging,'' Proc. of INTERSPEECH2013, Lyon, France, 2013 (to be published).

Repp, B. H., Liberman, A. M., Eccardt, T. and Pesetsky, D., ``Perceptual integration of acoustic cues for stop, fricative, and affricate manner,'' J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform., 4(4):621--637, 1978.

Dorman, M. F., Raphael, L. J. and Isenberg, D., ``Acoustic cues for a fricative-affricate contrast in word-final position,'' J. Phonetics, 8:394--405, 1980.

Gordon-Salant, S., Yeni-Komshian, G. H., Fitzgibbons, P. J. and Barrett, J., ``Age-related differences in identification and discrimination of temporal cues in speech segments,'' J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 119(4):2455--2466, 2006.